Consider this scenario: You have just assumed managerial responsibilities at a newfangled hospital whereby you are in charge of advancing patient care programs, as well as organizational efficiency within the general outpatient health centers. You are accustomed to your department’s general goals for change along with the theoretical strategies for advancing operations; however, you intend to optimize the modifications for all involved factions. During initial meetings, there was skepticism from department and hospital staff regarding the possibilities of the projected changes providing better services to not only themselves, but also the hospital’s.
In this scenario, immediate action like announcing a modern clinical or quality assessment program is capable of directly tackling the challenges you encounter. Nonetheless, additional information will aid you in effectively dealing with your professional duties. You might need to learn the systems that are already functioning acceptably in the clinics, or have a better understanding of the services valued within the local community. Additionally, you might find it necessary to learn on employees’ views of their mission and service in order to come up with strategies that are capable of motivating them for adjustment. The information that will aid you in meeting these goals will come mainly from for instance the people engaged in your inquiries and plans, your patients, as well as coworkers. This information can be gathered from either talking to individuals informally, or applying qualitative research techniques, especially in new scenarios and environments. This essay examines how and why clinicians who are very busy might apply qualitative techniques in answering questions, while at the same time solving problems such as those in the above situation.
Qualitative Techniques for Managerial Change
Qualitative research signifies a type of inquiry, which evaluates the information conveyed via language and behavior within natural situations (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). It is applied in capturing expressive information not communicated in quantitative data concerning motivations, beliefs, feelings and values that trigger deeds. Qualitative methods emerge from a multiplicity of traditions and disciplines (Crabtree & Miller, 1992). They are applied in learning straight from patients and individuals what is significant to them, providing the context vital for comprehending quantitative findings, as well as identify variables necessary for impending clinical studies. While qualitative inquiry has been advocated as a means of reaching the elements that other methods are incapable of reaching, it is also doubted by some since it rarely presents a generalizable basis for clinical resolutions and policies (Jones, 1995).
Certain qualitative approaches apply technical methods (e.g. Statistical content analysis) in ascertaining the importance of findings, whereas others depend on researchers thoughtful considerations. Ethnography signifies a type of inquiry, which merges these approaches, and this essay applies techniques from this practice in demonstrating our line of reasoning. Ethnography signifies a semi-structured means of learning about people, as well as their culture (Ventres & Frankel, 1996). Having certain questions in their minds, ethnographic researchers engross themselves in a situation to discover the significances, conventions of behavior, along with ways of thinking vital to individuals of a faction as they appear in impromptu encounters. The essential task of ethnographers is to examine study subjects within their natural situations. This can be done as silent setting observers or as partaker-observers who tend to ask questions as they escort study subjects during their activities. Whatever the case, data is collected in not only unstructured, but also structured methods. They can jot impulsive field notes, which feature what they observe and hear, or arrange their observations in rating scales, groups and checklists that they carry to the situation. Apart from observing, ethnographers question subjects with the intention of learning from well-positioned persons who are capable of providing important information (also known as “key informant” interviews); comprehending experiences particularly necessary in shaping the views and decisions (also known as “critical incident” reports); or generating original information from factions of subjects within focus groups. A researcher can audiotape or videotape these interactions; this is very important since it ensures that expressive data is captured correctly and entirely as they transpire. Taping also allows the researcher to bring the information to more controlled situations, where it is possible to transcribe, code, and analyze it for significant subjects and meanings, and validate using trained evaluators, assisted by computer software if suitable (Crabtree & Miller, 1992).
Employing more than one assessor helps guarantee the consistency of ethnographic data, similar to a detailed description of how the analysis of the study is done. Researchers tend to be reasonably certain of the authenticity of their findings through the collection of data from sources that are independent, presentation of initial findings to examine participants for their opinion, and fully examining uncommon or remote information. These approaches are expected to turn into an increasingly consistent as consensus emerges on the necessity for greater methodological rigidity in qualitative research (Morgan, 1997).
These approaches are suitable for practical environments in which a fuller comprehension of behavior, the significances and contexts of occurrences, and the effect of values on choices could be helpful for physicians.
Importance of these Techniques
According to Lincoln and Guba (1985), qualitative observations, as well as interviews, are capable of providing priceless information; for instance, who within the medical records department is capable of improving the record retrieval rate, or what types of outreach programs are capable of attracting new patients. However, at a deeper level, qualitative experiences are also essential in understanding a system’s structure i.e. how interdependent persons, factions and institutional constituents function (or are unsuccessful in functioning) together. This is vital since as in any other complex system, in a hospital, change in one dimension certainly affects others. Arrangements to provide evening clinic hours, for instance, might necessitate full reflection of clerical, as well as nursing union rules, conditions, benefits, security staffing, pharmacy accessibility, and other facets of functions. Will compensatory time conditions for clerical staff working overtime give rise to staff shortages in normal weekday working hours? Is the hospital security staff capable of ensuring safety after hours to an inaccessible and otherwise desolate clinic region? Will the pharmacy contain enough personnel to fill up outpatient prescriptions besides inpatient arrays? And while the elevated patient base along with the third-party payments produced by a general medicine evening clinic cover up the total extra costs to these and other constituents of the system? Each of these groups’ members is capable of staking in modification, which at first glimpse may be obviously helpful to patients and applicable only to staff at a local level.
Qualitative research techniques are necessary for uncovering the level of these interdependencies, as well as the values that members in the system put not only on them, but also on the status quo. They offer instruments for the visitor or outsider to an intricate social system to exemplify its important constituents while anticipating and coordinating the outcomes of change all through it. Although commonly employed quantitative research methods offer information concerning universal situations, properly used qualitative techniques to produce broad structured knowledge concerning these types of situations, processes, foundations of meanings, values, along with interactions distinctive in one place, as well as one system at a specified time. Considering that every existing institution happens to be concurrently a bureaucracy, business, communal system, and network of vested interests, modifications that make a considerable effect on such institutions can only be fully comprehended, retrospectively or prospectively, through an amalgamation of not only quantitative, but also qualitative approaches (Morgan, 1997).
The range of papers that we write comprises essays, research papers, book and film reviews, term papers, thesis statements, dissertations, cover letters, resumes and a lot of other types. Order any paper you need at OrderCustomPaper.