Public Policy and Administration

As government activities became more complex, a better qualification of public administration was required. In the late 19th century, Woodrow Wilson called for the development of public service. He suggested that the US could borrow some model of administration from European monarchies without undermining American democracy. At the same time, Max Weber researched bureaucracy in Germany. He stated that the wealth of information would put bureaucrats over any other officials in power when he described bureaucracy as a rational and efficient hierarchical apparatus. Woodrow and Weber developed what is known as a classic model of public administration.
In the 20th century, the classic model was succeeded with the open-system administration. To successfully arrange the operation, organizations had to take into account threats from the external political bodies first. In the complex intergovernmental system, we shall view organizations like organisms. Customs and beliefs of people within the organization are as important as its rules to administrative practices.
Public administration is closely connected to public policy. It can be studied using the stages model that includes agenda-setting as well as formulation, adoption, implementation, and evaluation of a policy. Before implementing any policy, officials have to attract government’s attention to it. Some topics quickly turn into agenda while the others can shuffle for a long time. As the agenda is ready, government community drafts the proposal to make it look like a policy. When the draft is complete, the governmental institution can adopt the policy. In a while after executives have implemented the policy, the government can evaluate its functioning to amend it. These steps of public policy-making allow creating effective policies that regulate the life of organizations and individuals.